The Journal of Neurobehavioral Sciences

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 107--113

The relationship between perfectionism and goal orientation types on sports continuation


Hazal Ayas1, Turgay Bišer2,  
1 Department of Psychology, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey
2 Faculty of Sport Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Hazal Ayas
Department of Psychology, Uskudar University, Istanbul
Turkey

Abstract

Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study is, to determine the effect of perfectionism levels and goal orientation types on the individuals who played licensed basketball in the past, to continue their basketball life at a professional/amateur level or dropped out basketball. Methods: The sample of the study consists of a licensed basketball history, a total of 150 participants who continue at the amateur level (50), professional level (50), and dropped out basketball/continue as a hobby (50). Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire developed by Duda et al. (1992) to determine types of goal orientation and Multidimensional Perfectionism Questionnaire (Frost et al., 1990) to predict perfectionism levels were used to collect data. The data analyzed with SPSS 25.0 program with one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation analyses. Results: As a result of analyses, there were no significant differences between task and ego orientation and perfectionism and sport continuation types of participants. It was also found that according to correlation analysis conducted to determine the relationship between task and ego orientation among the styles of continuing sports; a statistically significant positive moderate relationship between task and ego orientation score of participants who dropped out basketball and continue at an amateur level; on the other hand, a high positive correlation was found between goal orientation and ego orientation of those who continue at professional level. Conclusion: Results provide a richer understanding of the effects of goals orientations with perfectionism and their relationship to performance and have implications on sport continuation.



How to cite this article:
Ayas H, Bišer T. The relationship between perfectionism and goal orientation types on sports continuation.J Neurobehav Sci 2021;8:107-113


How to cite this URL:
Ayas H, Bišer T. The relationship between perfectionism and goal orientation types on sports continuation. J Neurobehav Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 17 ];8:107-113
Available from: http://www.jnbsjournal.com/text.asp?2021/8/2/107/323806


Full Text



 Introduction



Research in the sports psychology literature has started to focus on the participation of individuals in sports since the 1970s. It is known that there are various factors on sport participation, sports continuity, and dropout. It is seen that these factors are examined in categories such as sports-related, nonsports-related, or psychosocial factors.[1],[2],[3] Psychological conditions of individuals affect their sports performance as well as their way of continuing their sports life.[4] The subject of this study was created to determine the effects of some psychological factors on individuals' continuing their basketball life.

Basketball is a popular sport with more than 200 federations and 450 million male and female participants, who are actively played or watched by many people of all ages and physiological characteristics in different cultures in the world. Participation in basketball is increasing day by day with organizations such as the Olympic Games, World Championships, European Championships all over the world.[5] Today, in Turkey, it is defined as the most popular sport after football. A large number of individuals participate basketball at the infrastructure, professional, and amateur levels.[6]

The aim of the study is, to determine the effect of perfectionism level and goal orientation types on the individuals who played licensed basketball in the past, to continue their basketball life at a professional/amateur level or drop out basketball.

Perfectionism is an important construct in the study of personality. In literature, the concept of perfectionism is defined differently; “demanding of oneself or others a higher quality of performance than is required by the situation,”[7] “setting difficult goals and strive to achieve them.”[8] In addition, perfectionist personality traits are often described as setting difficult goals, rigid way of thinking, being too future-oriented, overstating the goals to be achieved, and devaluating after achievement.[9]

While perfectionism was considered as a unidimensional and negative concept before, it is thought that it is insufficient to define it in one dimension, it does not have only negative dimensions but also have positive dimensions. Therefore, two different dimensions described normal (adaptive) and abnormal (maladaptive) perfectionism. Perfectionist strives are defined adaptive perfectionism, while perfectionist concerns are defined maladaptive perfectionism. Perfectionist strives are associated with positive characteristics such as extraversion, resilience, positive affect, high life satisfaction, active coping methods, and the need for success, while perfectionist concerns are associated with negative features such as depressive affect, defensive personality, interpersonal problems, and somatic complaints.[10]

Frost et al. (1990) considered perfectionism as multidimensional and defined perfectionism as “having high level of self-criticism and setting extremely high standards.”[11] They examined perfectionism in 6 dimensions: overly concerned with mistakes, parental expectation, parental criticism, suspicion of behavior, and personal standards and order. They examined perfectionism in 6 dimensions: personal standards, concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, parental expectations, parental criticism, and organization. Frost et al. (1990) in their study examined which subdimensions are related to adaptive or maladaptive perfectionism; they define the dimension of “concern over mistakes” as the concept most related to psychopathology, while high “personal standards” and “order” are related to positive personality traits. In addition, personal standards subscale was found to be positively associated with striving for success. Therefore, athletes achieving high success in sports are expected to have high personal standards. In addition, it was found that athletes who pay excessive attention to mistakes; perceive the mistake as a negative situation and react more negatively to the it.[11]

In literature, it is seen that adaptive perfectionism positively affects sports performance, while maladaptive perfectionism affects performance negatively by increasing anxiety.[12] Furthermore, it has been observed that perfectionist concerns increase the level of burnout by increasing stress in athletes, but perfectionist strives are associated with a lower burnout level.[13] Research results show that perfectionist strives contribute positively to sports performance as opposed to perfectionist concerns.[14],[15] It has also been concluded that perfectionist strives are associated with the participation of young athletes in sports-oriented activities, so they should be evaluated as one of the factors that increase performance.[16]

There are studies in the literature that examine the relationship between perfectionism and continuing sport life. Joweth et al. examined the relationship between perfectionism levels of young people and their sport participation and burnout levels. According to results, they concluded that perfectionist strives are positively correlated with participation in sports and negatively correlated with burnout, so perfectionist strives are an important factor in maintaining sports participation.[17] Nam and Han, in their studies with 486 professional and 233 amateur golfers, concluded that professional golfers have significantly lower levels of perfectionism than amateurs.[18]

It is seen that, motivation is investigated in researches examining the factors related to participating, maintaining, and dropping out sport. Motivation is defined as a concept that underlies human behavior and has the function of initiating, maintaining, and ending behaviors. In the literature, need achievement theory, attribution theory, competence motivation theory, and achievement goal theory have been developed to explain the motivation sources.[19],[20],[21]

In this study, achievement goal theory which is defined as what individuals' what success means to them and how they are evaluated[22],[23] is discussed to explain the motivational factors that are thought to have an effect on sports participation and continuation. Nicholls et al. (1989) developed the concepts of task orientation and ego orientation. According to the theory, task-oriented athletes take themselves as a reference and focus their energy and motivation on learning a new skill, mastering, self-development, and hard work.[24] Ego-oriented athletes, on the other hand, use their motivation to show their superiority in their skills, and Success for theese athletes means, defeating their opponent with less effort during the competition.[25] Nicholls et al., stated that both ego and task orientation characteristics, which are two dimensions of goal orientation, are present in every athlete at certain levels. And both orientations can be seen in athletes at the same time.[22]

The studies related to goal orientation and sports continuation are examined; Ötkan et al. determine the relationship between group cohesion and goal orientation with 243 basketball players from the Turkish Basketball Federation, they concluded that age and ego orientation scores had a moderate negative relationship.[26] Toros et al., in their study examining the goal orientation, motivation climate, and life satisfaction of elite and nonelite male basketball players, concluded that there is no significant difference in the goal orientation levels of elite and nonelite basketball players.[27]

Treasure et al., in their research with 73 professional and 106 amateur rugby players, found that professional rugby players had significantly higher scores for both task and ego orientation compared to amateur rugby players, also stated that there was no significant difference between task and ego dimensions.[28] Carpenter and Yates, in their study examining the goal orientation levels of semi-professional and amateur football players, concluded that semi-professional football players have higher ego orientation, compared to their task orientation scores than amateur football players.[29] Koumpoula et al. in their study examining goal orientation and sport motivation of 98 professional and recreational rhythmic gymnasts found that recreational gymnasts had lower ego orientation scores compared to professionals, while the task orientation scores of gymnasts in both groups were higher than their goal orientation scores.[30]

In this study, the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and goal orientation types in the way of sport continuation of individuals who have played basketball at a licensed level in the past was examined.

 Methods



The ethics committee approval has been obtained from the Marmara University Health Sciences Institute Ethics Committee (18.02.2019/32).

Participants

Data were collected from a total of 150 participants (65 female, 85 male), whom 50 were professional basketball player, 50 were amateur player, 50 were dropped out basketball with having licenced basketball background. The participants age ranged between 18 and 64 (M = 32.55; standard deviation = 11.2). The participants in the study were informed about the research and their written consent was obtained by researchers. The sample of the study consisted of people selected on the basis of volunteering. Having psychiatric disorder, not competence to understand reading were exclusion criteria of the research.

Measures

Sociodemographic and Basketball-Related Information Form, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire were administered to the participants.

Sociodemographic and basketball-related information form

The 13-item form was prepared by researchers to tap information on both sociodemographic characteristics and basketball-related information of participants. Informations such as gender, age, marital status, basketball background were questioned.

Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale

ASQ was developed by Frost et al. (1990) to determine levels of perfectionism and 6 subscales. The scale consists of 35 items. Each of those 35 items is scored according to a scale of 0–5. The total score of perfectionism may range from 35–175, with higher scores indicating higher perfectionism levels. The scale included six subscales; organization, concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, personal standards, parental criticism, and parental expectations. According to literature, organization and personal standards are associated with adaptive perfectionism in contrast concern over mistakes, high parental expectations, and parental criticism doubts about actions are associated with maladaptive perfectionism. The validity and reliability study of the scale's Turkish version was performed by Kağan in 2011.[31]

Task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire

Task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire was developed by Duda and Nicholls to determine task and ego orientation levels of individuals in the sport area. Each item is scored according to a scale of 1–5. The scale has 13 items and two subscales – ego orientation and task orientation. The score for each task and ego orientation subscales was used as the unit of measurement. The validity and reliability study of the scale's Turkish version was performed by Toros in 2004.[32]

Data analyses

IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp) was used for the analysis of the data obtained in the study. To assess the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, descriptive statistical methods such as percentage, mean, and standard deviation were used. Data were tested for normality with Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Skewness and kurtosis values ranging between −2 and +2 are considered acceptable with respect to the data being normally distribute. According to values to examine the relationship between sociodemographic variables and perfectionism, goal orientation, independent samples t-test, and one way-ANOVA were performed, also Chi-square analysis was applied for categorical data.

 Results



Descriptive statistics of the sociodemographic variables related to the participants are given in [Table 1].{Table 1}

Descriptive statistics of the data on the basketball histories of the participants are given in [Table 2].{Table 2}

As a result of the one-way ANOVA analysis between the sport continuation and the task/ego orientation dimensions, no statistically significant difference was found between the task orientation (F[2.147] = 1.50, P > 0.05) and ego orientation (F[2.147] = 0.85, P > 0.05) subdimensions and the styles of sport continuation.

According to the results of the Pearson correlation analysis conducted to evaluate the relationship between the sport continuation and task and ego orientation dimensions, it is revealed that, dropping out basketball (r = 0.375, P < 0.05) and playing at amateur level (r = 0.341, P < 0.05) were statistically positive and moderately significant whereas playing at professional level was statistically positive and highly significant with task and ego orientations. In other words, task and ego orientation were found to be related to each other in all three sample groups. While the ego orientation scores of the participants with high task orientation also increased, the ego orientation scores of the participants with low task orientation also decreased.

According to the results of the one-way ANOVA analysis conducted to evaluate the relationship between perfectionism and sport continuation, no statistically significant difference was found between sport continuation and organization (F [2.147] = 0.56, P > 0.05), concern over mistakes (F [2.147] = 0.62, P > 0.05), doubts about actions (F [2.147] = 1.22, P > 0.05], parental expectations (F [2.147] = 0.27, P > 0.05), parental criticism (F [2.147] = 2.54, P > 0.05), personal standards (F [2.147] = 0.47, P > 0.05), subtypes and total score of perfectionism (F [2.147] = 0.99, P > 0.05).

On the other hand, considering that the score that can be obtained from the scale is between 0 and 175, the average score obtained from the scale (100) shows that the participants have more than moderate level of perfectionism.

The relationship between perfectionism and goal orientation according to the sport continuation

The results of the Pearson correlation analysis conducted to determine the relationship between task and ego orientation levels and subtypes of multidimensional perfectionism scale according to the sport continuation are given in [Table 3].{Table 3}

As seen in table, statistically significant positive weak correlation was found between the task orientation and concern over mistakes, parental expectations, personal standards subdimensions of perfectionism on participants who dropped out basketball (r = 0.33, P < 0.05; r = 0.29, P < 0.05; r = 0.34, P < 0.05). In other words, among the quiting basketball participants with task oriented ones; had higher perfectionist traits in concern over mistakes, parental expectation, and personal standards. No statistically significant correlation was found between task orientation and order, doubts about action, parental criticism scores (P = 0.79, P = 0.32, P = 0.59). Statistically significant negative weak relationship (r = −0.33, P < 0.05) was found between the ego orientation and order subtypes. In other words, it was concluded that among the participants who dropped out basketball, ego-oriented ones had a less perfectionist structure in order dimension. Statistically significant positive moderate correlation was found between the ego orientation and concern over the mistakes and parental expectation scores (r = 0.43, P < 0.05; r = 0.53, P < 0.001). In other words, it was concluded that the ego-oriented participants who dropped out basketball are more perfectionist in the dimensions of concern over mistakes and parental expectation.

Statistically significant positive weak relationship was found between the ego orientation scale score of the amateur level participants and the personal standards subdimensions score (r = 0.33, P < 0.05). In other words, it was concluded that among the participants at an amateur level with ego oriented ones, had more perfectionist characteristics in the dimension of personal standards.

In professional basketball players, statistically significant positive weak relationship was found between task orientation scale score and concern over the mistakes, doubts about the actions, parental expectation, and personal standards subdimensions scores (r = 0.37, P < 0.05; r = 0.33, P < 0.05; r = 0.35, P < 0.05; r = 0.46, P < 0.05). In other words, it was concluded that professional basketball players with high task orientation have more perfectionist characteristics in the dimensions of concern over the mistakes, doubts about the actions, parental expectation, and personal standards. In professional basketball players, there was a statistically significant positive weak correlation between the ego orientation and the parental criticism scale score (r = 0.31, P < 0.05), and there was statistically significant positive moderate correlation between concern over the mistakes, doubts about the actions, parental expectation, and personal standards scale scores (r = 0.54, P < 0.05; r = 0.44, P < 0.05; r = 0.47, P < 0.05; r = 0.48, P < 0.05). In other words, it was concluded that professional basketball players with high ego orientation have more perfectionist characteristics in the dimensions of parental criticism, concern over the mistakes, doubts about the actions, parental expectation, and personal standards. Furthermore, no significant relationship was found with the order dimension (P = 0.29).

 Discussion



When the perfectionism level and goal orientation of the participants were examined, it was found that among the participants who dropped out basketball, task-oriented ones, it was concluded that they had higher perfectionist traits in the dimensions of concern over the mistakes, parental expectation, and personal standards, and ego-oriented ones had more perfectionist structure in the dimensions of concern over the mistakes and parental expectation, and a less perfectionist traits in the dimension of order.

Briefly, in participants who dropped out basketball, both positive and negative perfectionism were positively correlated with task orientation, while negative perfectionism was found to be positively correlated with ego orientation. Duda and Nicholls emphasized that high task orientation athletes are more satisfied with the sports activities; they were involved in, therefore they continued to do sports for a longer time. In contrast, high ego-oriented athletes tend to drop out sports more, task-oriented athletes continue to do sports for a longer time for recreational purposes.[25] Furthermore, the findings obtained from our study that negative perfectionism is associated with ego orientation supports the findings above.

 Conclusion



It was concluded that high ego-oriented amateur level participants have more perfectionist characteristics in the dimension of personal standards. In other words, the ego orientation levels of the amateur level participants were positively correlated with adaptive perfectionism. Theoretical explanations about goal orientation in the literature also support this finding. Ego-oriented athletes are expected to choose competitors and goals that are guaranteed to achieve and defeat to protect their self-worth.[25]

Another finding of the study is professional basketball players with high level of ego, and task orientation had more perfectionist characteristics in the dimensions of concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, parental expectation, and personal standards. Briefly, task and ego orientation were found to be positively correlated with both adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism in professional basketball players. The literature findings also support these results; it was concluded that perfectionist strives were generally positively associated with both ego and task orientation, but perfectionist concerns did not have a significant effect on goal orientation, except for a few studies.[10] The relationship between perfectionism and goal orientation in athletes has been discussed in different studies in the literature. Dunn et al. investigated the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and goal orientation with 174 Canadian football players and concluded that task orientation levels of football players are associated with adaptive perfectionism, and ego orientation levels are associated with maladaptive perfectionism.[33] In addition, Kurudirek (2017) investigates the relationship between perfectionism and goal orientation in 133 professional ice hockey players, found a positive relationship between the personal standards subdimension of perfectionism and goal orientation.[34]

When the findings obtained from the study are evaluated, the fact that ego orientation is associated with maladaptive perfectionism, especially in the athletes who drop out basketball, suggests that supporting the task orientation dimension of the children and adolescent athletes, be one of the important factors that can prevent them from quitting sports. It is thought that coaches, sport psychologists, and managers in this sense will play an important role in the acquisition of adolescent athletes. In addition, the fact that high ego-oriented professional-level athletes are mostly related to maladaptive perfectionism dimensions suggests that it may be important to support the task-oriented features to benefit from the adaptive perfectionism in professional-level athletes.

Patient informed consent

There is no need for patient informed consent.

Ethics committee approval

The ethics committee approval has been obtained from the Marmara University Health Sciences Instute Ethics Comitte (18.02.2019/32).

Financial support and sponsorship

No funding was received.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

Author contribution subject and rate

Hazal Ayas (60%): Design the research, data collection, and analyses and wrote the whole manuscript.

Turgay Biçer (40%): Contributed with on research design and data collection, supervised the article write-up.

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