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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May-August 2022
Volume 9 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 39-81

Online since Thursday, September 1, 2022

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Evaluation of the coexistence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder symptoms p. 39
Meliha Zengin Eroglu, Melek Gözde Lus
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_14_22  
Aim: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, and its etiology of it has not been fully elucidated yet. We tried to evaluate the familial aspects of anxiety disorders and ADHD in this study. Materials and Methods: Our study group comprised 128 parents aged between 24 and 60 years (114 mothers and 14 fathers) of 128 children with diagnosis of ADHD (n = 47), anxiety disorders (n = 30), and ADHD + anxiety disorders (n = 51) who had been evaluated by the department of child and adolescent psychiatry. Findings of anxiety disorders and ADHD were evaluated in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-V Criteria. Beck Anxiety Inventory, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), and Turgay's Adult Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD)/ADHD Diagnosis and Evaluation Scale were applied to parents. Results: Anxiety levels, WURS, and Turgay's Adult ADD/ADHD Diagnosis and Evaluation Scale points did not be differentiated between groups. 16.7% (n = 5) of ADHD + anxiety, 6.4% of ADHD (n = 3), and 9.8% (n = 5) of anxiety group of parents were high-degree ADD/ADHD (+). Conclusion: Our study results show that there are some familial features of ADHD and anxiety disorders. Considering the relationship between these two disorders during the psychiatric care of children as well as their parents is deeply important for clinicians.
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Mental health status of caregivers of persons with neurological disability p. 46
Pallerla Srikanth, Berigai Parthasarathy Nirmala
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_15_22  
Introduction: Neurological conditions have a long-term impact on the individual and their family and also affect one's general and mental health. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the psychological morbidity among 50 primary caregivers of persons with a neurological disability and was conducted using a self-reporting questionnaire. Results: Most of them were female (64.0%), and predominantly, the caregiver was mother (50.0%). Most of the caregivers have reported felt nervous, tense, or worried during hospitalization (76.0%); felt unhappy during caregiving (86.0%); and faced difficulty to enjoy daily activities (74.0%). In addition to that, (98.0%) caregiver's have reported that their day to day work suffered, (70.0%) were unable to play a usual part in life. Conclusion: The study would highlight the need for screening the mental health of the caregivers of persons with neurological disabilities.
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The effects of flavonoids in curcumin on neurobehavioral deficits in insulin-resistant rats p. 51
Abdullahi Abiodun Mohammed, Oluwole Busayo Akinola
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_17_22  
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). In a Wistar rat model, we studied Alzheimer-like symptoms using a high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ) to replicate insulin resistance and the resulting neurobehavioral abnormalities. Curcumin, a flavonoid in turmeric, was studied for its potential therapeutic effects. Aim: This study sought to look at the exploratory, discriminatory, and spatial cognitive indices in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomized into six groups and given the following treatments: olive oil only for control; curcumin only for the curcumin group; HFD and three doses STZ for the diabetic rats; HFD, three doses STZ, and concurrent treatment with curcumin for the protective group; pretreatment with curcumin, then HFD and three doses STZ for a preventive group; and HFD, three doses STZ, and curcumin for a therapeutic group. Subsequently, line and center line crossing frequency assessed rats' exploratory activities; rearing frequency data assessed novel environment behavior. The novel object recognition test and Morris water maze test assessed discrimination and spatial memory. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Our findings revealed that insulin resistance prolonged escape latency of untreated diabetic rats; contrariwise, curcumin significantly reduced escape latency, increased difference score in novel object recognition paradigm, and increased explorative activities. Conclusion: Oral curcumin improves exploratory activity, discriminating memory, and spatial memory in male Wistar rats with AD-like neurobehavioral impairments. Patients with neurobehavioral abnormalities and comorbid insulin resistance may benefit from the flavonoids in curcumin.
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Uskudar life meaning and goals scale validity and reliability studies p. 58
Nevzat Tarhan, Aylin Tutgun Ünal
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_4_22  
Aim: One of the important factors that cause stress today is aimlessness. Determining the meaning and purposes of life has an impact on both the mental and physical health of the individual. Two types of values are mentioned as tool values and purpose values. Measuring the life goals to include these values is seen as important for determining the life goal skills of individuals. Hence, it is aimed to measure meaning and purpose and to measure perceptions about it. Materials and Methods: This study aimed to carry out validity and reliability studies of the Uskudar Life Meaning and Goals Scale (USLIFE). The sample consisted of 1026 people from Turkey. Factor analysis revealed that the scale consists of seven factors. Results: The first factor “Abstract Meaning Skill” explains 14.59% of the variance, the second factor “Skill to Delay of Gratification” 10.31% of the variance, the third factor “Concrete Meaning Skill” 8.97% of the variance, the fourth factor “Internal Control Skill” 5.53% of the variance, the fifth factor “Medium- and Long-Term Planning Skill” 4.60% of the variance, the sixth factor “Belief in Death” 4.39% of the variance, and the seventh factor “Ego Ideal Perception” explains 3.87% of the variance. The seven-factor structure consisting of 28 items in total explained 52.28%. In addition, seven factors confirmed the USLIFE in the confirmatory factor analysis. Goodness-of-fit values were found to be acceptable. The Cronbach's alpha value of the scale was found to be 0.74. Conclusion: A valid and reliable scale, named “USLIFE,” has emerged. This scale measures people's life goals skills and is graded in the five-point Likert type between “completely agree” and “never agree.”
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Evaluation of the effects of emotional and violence-related genes in athletes p. 68
Buse Sabiha Bozaslan, Emel Hülya Yükseloglu
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_18_22  
Investigation of the human genome involves the examination of many factors such as gene function, structural features of the genome, chromatin arrangement, recombination rate, and mutation to accurately understand its complex relationship with physiology and diseases. With the sequencing of the human genome, there is an increasing number of studies investigating the influence of genes during the development of behavior and personality traits. Studies show that complex behavior and traits are regulated by multiple genes. In this sense, genes that affect the dopamine pathway are studied in relation to the field of neuroscience. Studies on sports genetics include all of the studies in this field, such as the identification of genes that affect athletic performance, the elucidation of the mechanisms of action of these genes, and the determination of predispositions in terms of athletic performance. Considering the factors that determine success in sports, it is of great importance to create training and nutrition programs suitable for genetic structure not only in individual sports but also in team sports. This study will be presented as a review of the associations in the literature about catechol-O-methyltransferase, 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter, and monoamine oxidase, known in the literature as candidate genes that affect the personality and behavioral characteristics of athletes and are especially related to aggression.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia: Two case reports p. 72
Nefise Eda Arslanoglu, Nazli Gamze Bülbül, Mehmet Güney Senol, Mehmet Fatih Özdag
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_22_22  
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a serious public health problem in our country in the world and has serious effects on the central and peripheral nervous system. HIV-associated dementia (HAD), which may develop due to HIV infection, causes subcortical dementia that can progress with marked slowdown in reaction time and psychomotor speed, impaired cognitive flexibility, emotional lability, and apathy. Neurocognitive tests are the most appropriate tools for the neurocognitive assessment and staging of the disease. In this context, the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examinations Revised (ACE-R) test may be preferred in the neurocognitive evaluation of patients considered to have HAD, in terms of its repeatability and easy applicability, as it allows us to evaluate many neurocognitive functions in detail.
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SARS-CoV-2 infection-related acute parkinsonism and encephalitis: Is there a clinicoradiological correlation? p. 77
Vikash Agarwal, Dolly Mushahary, Praveen Chander, K Venkatraman, K Lakshminarayanan, V Sathish Kumar, S Dinesh Nayak
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_45_21  
COVID-19 infection can cause neurological manifestations as early and late complications (chronic COVID syndrome). These include headache, dizziness, confusion, acute cerebrovascular problems, ataxia, and seizures. COVID-19-related encephalopathy, encephalitis, and parkinsonism have been reported earlier; however, the possible links and pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. In this report, we report a series of patients (n = 5) presenting with acute severe neurological syndromes such as parkinsonism, focal status epilepticus, or acute ataxia as a part of long-hauler COVID-19 infection. We categorized the clinico-radiological and electroencephalographic features in our cases to understand the clinical patterns in SARS-CoV-2 related brain cortex involvement. This might help in future for better clinical categorization for these COVID-19-related neurological manifestations.
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