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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-April 2023
Volume 10 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-28

Online since Tuesday, March 28, 2023

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The burden of rarity: Rare diseases and future perspectives p. 1
Shweta Kapote, Pallerla Srikanth
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Low-frequency prefrontal cortex magnetic stimulation improves autism spectrum disorder symptoms: A pilot study p. 3
Nevzat Tarhan, Muammer Aydogdu, Yelda Ibadi, Emel Sari Gökten, Barış Metin
Aim: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder affecting multiple levels of social and cognitive skills and causing a significant health-care burden. Currently, there is no approved treatment for ASD. Methods: In this study, 10 children with ASD between the ages 6 and 19 years (M = 12.3, standard deviation = 3.94) were recruited. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied and symptom severity was measured before and after treatment using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC). All children received sessions of low-frequency rTMS to the bilateral prefrontal cortices. Results: The results showed that the children improved according to both symptom ratings. Specifically, both the relating (z = −2.02, P < 0.05), body and object use (z = −2.03, P < 0.05) and language (z = −2.21, P < 0.05) subscale scores and the total score of ABC (z = −2.37, P < 0.05) decreased. Regarding CARS, visual response (z = −2.06, P < 0.05), verbal communication (z = −2.12, P < 0.05) subscale scores, and the total score (z = −2.52, P = 0.01) decreased significantly after TMS therapy. Conclusion: Our study was open label and in terms of sample size should be considered a pilot study. Although the results should be evaluated cautiously, the findings suggest that rTMS might be a safe and useful tool for improving deficits related to ASD in children.
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Effect of coronavirus vaccine on depressive and anxiety symptoms of health-care professionals developed through the pandemic p. 8
Öner Avınca, Abdullah Şen, Mahmut Taş, Mehmet Diyaddin Güleken, Remzi Çetinkaya, Baran Arı, Ahmet Yeşil
Aim: COVID-19 pandemic response measures adversely affected the psychological effects of health-care professionals due to disruption of daily life, sense of uncertainty, fear of getting sick, and the perception of working in a dangerous environment. In this study, we assessed the level of depression and anxiety symptoms in health-care professionals who had interaction with COVID-19 patients both before and after vaccination. Materials and Methods: The participants in this prospective cohort study, which took place between July 24, 2020 and April 30, 2021, were 233 health-care workers who were employed in the hospital's COVID area. Participants were divided into two groups as pre-COVID-19 vaccine group (Group 1; n = 98) and postvaccine group (Group 2; n = 135), both groups received the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: The mean score of the Group 1 anxiety subscale was 15.64 ± 2.112, and the mean score of the depression subscale was 15.19 ± 1.762. The same scores were 9.65 ± 5.535 and 9.13 ± 4.984, respectively, in Group 2. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.001). Conclusion: In our research, we have seen that the application of the vaccine has positive effects on the psychological state of health workers who are directly exposed to COVID-19 patients. We think that the therapies or preventive measures that are developed during the pandemic phase will lessen the possibility of sadness and anxiety in health-care personnel and boost the effectiveness of the effort to combat the disease.
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Evaluation of ethanol extract of Curcuma longa in lead-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity p. 13
Rimamnde Usman Elisha, Murdakai Tanko, Abubakar Adamu Sadeeq
Background: Heavy metals such as lead are ubiquitous elements at exposure causing deleterious effects on the brain and leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Aim: In this investigation, the neurotherapeutic effects of ethanol extract of Curcuma longa (EECl) against lead-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity in rats were examined. Biochemical examination for antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxide level (malondialdehyde [MDA], superoxide dismutase [SOD], and glutathione [GSH]) was evaluated, the Barnes maze for learning and memory, and histological analysis (H and E stain) for general histoarchitectural features to investigate the neurotherapeutic characteristics of EECl. Materials and Methods: Six groups totalling 36 rats were created (n = 6). In the first group, rats received distilled water (2 mg/kg), in the second, lead acetate (LA) (120 mg/kg), in the third, ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg), and the 4th, 5th, and 6th groups, rats received LA (120 mg/kg) and EECl (375 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg, and 1500 mg/kg, respectively) for 14 days. Results: A significant learning and memory deficit was seen in the LA-treated group's results, but a significant improvement was seen in the EECl-treated group. Increased oxidative stress was seen in the LA-treated group, as evidenced by an increase in MDA levels and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GSH). A decline in MDA levels and an increase in SOD and GSH activity was the evidence of the ameliorative effects of EECl treatment. Cytoarchitectural distortions relative to the control were observed with the LA-treated group. Mild distortion was however detected with EECl treatment. Conclusion: EECl has possible neurotherapeutic properties against LA-induced pathological changes in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. EECl may have neuroprotective effects against degenerative alterations brought on by LA.
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In silico evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CHRNA7 and GRIN1 genes related to Alzheimer's disease p. 22
Arash Rezaeirad, Ömer Faruk Karasakal, Ebru Özkan Oktay, Mesut Karahan
Aim: The purpose of this study is to predict the possible impact of missense single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CHRNA7 and GRIN1 genes associated with AD on protein structure, function, and stabilization and to analyze gene–gene interactions via in silico methods. Materials and Methods: SIFT, PolyPhen-2, SNPsandGO, PROVEAN, SNAP2, PhD-SNP, and Meta-SNP were used to estimate high-risk SNPs. The impact of SNPs on protein stabilization was evaluated with I-Mutant 3.0 and MUpro software. Three-dimensional models of amino acid changes were determined with the Project HOPE software. Furthermore, the gene–gene interactions were analyzed via GeneMANIA. Results: According to the results of 603 missense SNPs in the CHRNA7 gene, rs142728508 (Y233C), rs12899798 (W77G), rs138222088 (R227H), rs140316734 (R227C), rs199633275 (P322R), rs199819119 (L29F), rs200147286 (Q49P), rs200908085 (Y115C), rs201094833 (Q61R), rs201473594 (N69D), rs201210785 (E195K), and rs368352998 (S48W) polymorphisms were predicted as deleterious. Similarly, rs193920837 (P117 L), rs3181457 (I540M), and rs201764643 (R217P) polymorphisms in the GRIN1 were estimated as deleterious. Conclusion: It is thought that the results of this study will provide useful information to guide future diagnostic and experimental strategies for AD.
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