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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-April 2022
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-37

Online since Friday, April 1, 2022

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Motor function test protocol for parkinsonian triad in rodent model of Parkinson's disease p. 1
Mujittapha Umar Sirajo, Kauthar Murtala, John Chukwuma Oyem, Azeez Olakunle Ishola, Lukman Femi Owolabi
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_1_22  
Over the years, there has been an increase in research on parkinsonism in basic and translational neuroscience. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder vehemently associated with motor function deficits and other unique features collectively called the Parkinsonian triad, which slightly differs from other movement disorders such as Wilson's disease, tardive dyskinesia, chorea, and athetosis. Parkinsonian triad combines three major motor phenotypes of PD including bradykinesia, rigidity, and resting tremors. Hence, there is a need to review motor deficits protocols to create a set of behavioral protocols that critically address the parkinsonian triad's quantification in PD models. Literature search on Medline and PubMed was conducted to access the articles on the motor function test in a rodent model of Parkinsonism. Search terms include parkinsonism, parkinsonian triad, bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremors, stepping test, parallel bar test, pole test, and cylinder test. This review shows that bradykinesia characterized by difficulty in movement initiation could be assessed using a stepping test by measuring stepping length and time taken to initiate movement on a wooden ramp. It can also be assessed using a parallel bar test by measuring the time taken to make 90° turn. This turning hesitation is one of the critical features of akinesia. Rigidity is associated with an increase in muscle tone; it is assessed by using a pole test to measure the time taken for the rodent to slide down a smooth pole. Resting tremors is an involuntary, oscillatory movement of the distal part of the upper limb when not performing an action. It could be graded using a cylinder test when the rodent suspends its forelimb on the air in an attempt to climb the wall of the cylinder. In conclusion, the examinations and quantifications of the Parkinsonian triad are required to diagnose parkinsonism in rodent models.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

The Mind − Brain problem from the perspective of agency p. 7
Yunus A Cengel
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_46_21  
Aim: In this article, it is argued that the elusive mind qualifies as an active agent which works through the brain rather than the brain creating the subjective mind or acting as the mind itself. Materials and Methods: This article relies on observation-based reasoned arguments and thus it is philosophical in nature. Discussion: We seem to be living in a virtual reality interwoven of subjective experiences of sights, sounds, tastes, smells, colors, pain, and pleasure, all rendered by the enigmatic mind. The mind cannot be reduced to physical existence such as the sporadic electrical activity of the brain since no electrical activity has ever produced such cohesive subjective experience, the same way that the laws of physics cannot be reduced to matter and energy that comprise the physical existence. Conclusion: Unlike properties, agencies differ from emergent quantities in that agencies more than passively qualify matter; they actively control and rule matter. Agencies are characterized by causal power, and thus the capacity to cause changes. Several agencies can be identified in nature. The agency of physics is associated with the physical realm and is comprised of the universal laws and forces of physics. Life qualifies as a purposive agency which is comprised of the laws and influences of life. Even quantum fields act like virtual mechanisms and thus qualify as active agents associated with the production of the fundamental particles of physics with a fixed set of properties out of quanta of energy.
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Quantitative structured reporting in dementia studies with magnetic resonance imaging: Application to neuroinformatics p. 17
Mojtaba Barzegar, Joan Carreras
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_6_22  
Introduction: Nowadays, radiology is playing a very essential role in quantitative imaging from medical images to quantitative biomarkers. Integration of this numerical information into structured reports can make it more practical tool for an accurate diagnosis of dementia. Materials and Methods: This research developed a structured radiological report template for dementia as an automated integration of quantitative imaging biomarkers of magnetic resonance images into neurological structured reporting as a new achievement in the Management of Radiology Report Templates in a more organized style. Results: A significant accuracy rather than free conventional style for dementia patients. Conclusion: Final aim of this study is making this feature available to make the best decision on patients with some dementia signs.
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Investigation of the effect of anxiety disorder on time perception with zimbardo time perspective inventory p. 22
Huseyin Oguzhan San, Sultan Tarlaci, Korkut Ulucan, Tolga Polat, Ozlem Ozge Yilmaz, Beste Tacal Aslan
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_8_22  
Background: Linguists first coined the term anxiety in the 1600s to define a state of severe restlessness and worry. When we look at the Turkish dictionaries and printed sources, we see that the definition of anxiety is made simply as anxiety, fear, and worry. Anxiety; which we can describe as a mental and physical reaction, a defense strategy, against an event or fear. It will threaten the survival of the life; it is seen in two ways as situational anxiety and trait anxiety. Situational anxiety, as the name suggests, arises when faced with a threat or stress factor, while trait anxiety is an anxiety that occurs internally, independent of the event or situation. Aims and Objectives: For the continuity of one's cognitive and behavioral abilities, not only anxiety but also the perception of time has a great place in the continuity of life. The findings that help us understand one's time perspective are internal clock models and related mechanisms. This study aims to investigate the effect of anxiety on time perspective. Materials and Methods: To this end, the Beck Anxiety Scale, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the demographic information form were used to collect data. Data were collected from a total of 168 participants, 44 females and 124 males. Results and Conclusion: When the findings are evaluated in general terms, there was a moderately negative relationship between anxiety and past positive perspective and a moderately positive relationship between past negative perspective. Based on this result, anxiety prevents a positive perception of the past; on the contrary, it can be said that it causes a negative perception of the past.
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CASE REPORT Top

Management of psychosis accompanying tourette syndrome with quetiapine p. 28
Onur Toktamis, Cansu Çakir Sen, Nesrin Buket Tomruk
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_3_22  
Gilles de la Tourette (or briefly Tourette) syndrome (TS) is a neurobehavioral disorder that often begins in childhood and is characterized by motor and vocal tics. Many psychiatric disorders may accompany TS, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder being the most frequent. However, literature regarding the association between TS and psychosis is controversial. We present a patient who has comorbid TS and psychosis and is treated successfully with quetiapine.
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RESEARCH ARTICLE Top

The effect of child-centered play therapy on children with anger control problems is true p. 31
Afra Ahbab, Büsra Özdogan, Gökben Hizli Sayar
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_35_21  
Background: Children's anger and aggressive behaviors become a problem for teachers and parents at home, in the classroom, or the playground. Pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are recommended for children who cannot control their anger. Child-centered play therapy is one of these approaches. Aim: This study aimed to reveal the effect of child-centered play therapy on children with anger issues. Materials and Methods: The study group consists of 25 volunteer child clients with anger symptoms, and the control group consists of 25 volunteer child clients without anger symptoms. Each participant was given child-centered play therapy with 45-min sessions twice a week for 3 weeks during the research process. The Trait Anger-Anger Style Scale was administered to the participants before and after the therapy. Results: As a result of the study, it was shown that children with anger issues experienced a significant change and improved after child-centered play therapy. Children have become able to control their anger. At the same time, improvement was observed in the verbal and behavioral expression of anger. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that child-centered play therapy can be an effective treatment option for children with anger issues and aggressive behaviors.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Women with epilepsy in reproductive age years and requisite psychosocial management strategies p. 36
Pallerla Srikanth, Mysore Narasimha Vranda, Priya Treesa Thomas, Kenchaiah Raghvendra
DOI:10.4103/JNBS.JNBS_7_22  
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