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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Exposure to aflatoxin and aggressive behavior among wistar albino rats
Ajibola Abdulrahamon Ishola
May-August 2020, 7(2):72-78
DOI:10.4103/JNBS.JNBS_9_20  
Background: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminations of food have impact on human and animal health especially in sub-saharan Africa. However Animal model studies on the role of Aflatoxins in aggression behaviour is limited and this have implication for mental health and aggressive in children and emergent adults. Aims/Objective: The role of AFB1 in excessive territorial aggression behavior in Wistar rats was assessed. Material/Methods: Rodents in the experimental group (Group A, n = 6) were orally infused with AFB1 diluted in dimethylsulfoxide administered 0.3 mg/kg/day on days 1–12. Controls received distilled water similarly on days 1-12 days (Group B). For the observation, an intruder was introduced into the cage containing the residents who are experimental rats treated with aflatoxin and rats in the control treated with distilled water. Records of observations of territorial aggressive behaviors exhibited by the experimental and control rats toward the intruder were recorded. Each rat was given three trials of 5 min each. The study utilized the randomized blocked two-way ANOVA (factors timeline × treatment), followed by a post hoc analysis using Bonferroni correction to analyze the data, and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Findings demonstrated that exposure to aflatoxin significantly influenced aggressive behavior among Wistar rats F (1, 322) = 29.89, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.09. Aflatoxin-treated animals significantly exhibited more aggressive behavior than animals treated with distilled water (Bonferroni = 4.04, P < 0.001). Exposure time to aflatoxin interacted with treatment to significantly influence aggressive behavior among Wistar rats F (1, 322) = 3.26, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.10. The mean comparison reveals that there was no significant difference in aggressive behavior of the aflatoxin-treated and distilled water-treated rats from days 1–7. However, significant differences were observed from the 8th day onward to the 12th day. Aggressive behavior increased by 10% as the chronic exposure increases more than 7 days. Conclusion: Aflatoxin-induced toxicity in rodents influenced aggression through exacerbation of neurocognitive decline and brain biochemical distortions leading to aggressive behavior.
  1,913 125 -
Effects of highbush cranberry (Viburnum opulus) on hyperglycemia and oxidative damage in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Ali Taskiran, Emel Serdaroglu Kasikçi, Korkut Furkan Sahin, Burcu Çevreli, Tayfun Gözler, Muhsin Konuk
May-August 2020, 7(2):61-65
DOI:10.4103/JNBS.JNBS_11_20  
Özet Bu çalışmada, gilaburu meyvesi (Viburnum opulus, GİLA) ekstraktının Streptozotozin (STZ) enjeksiyonu ile diyabet modeli oluşturulan sıçanların kan glukoz seviyeleri ve böbrek doku homojenatları üzerindeki etkilerinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Kan glukoz düzeyleri şeker ölçüm cihazı kullanılarak kuyruk kanında bakıldı. Glukoz tayini STZ enjeksiyonundan 48 saat sonra yapıldı. Bunun için 32 adet Wistar albino sıçan kullanıldı. Sıçanlar, her biri 8 hayvan içeren Kontrol, STZ, STZ + GİLA ve GİLA olmak üzere 4 gruba ayrılmıştır. 12 hafta sonra sakrifiye edildiler. Çalışma dönemlerinde, kan glukoz seviyeleri belirli aralıklarla ölçüldü ve böbrek doku parametreleri sakrifiye edildikten sonra doku homojenatlarında ölçüldü. Ölçülen parametreler Glutatyon (GSH), Malondialdehit (MDA) ve Total Antioksidan Kapasite (TAK) idi. Çalışmadan elde edilen sonuçlar SPSS yazılım programı kullanılarak analiz edildi ve P < 0.05 istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir deǧer olarak kabul edildi. Çalışmanın bulguları, GİLA tüketiminin güçlü antioksidan özellikleri nedeni ile diyabetik insanlarda olası nefropatiyi önleme konusunda yardımcı olabileceǧini göstermiştir. Anahtar kelimeler: Viburnum opulus, diyabet, bφbrek, oksidatif hasar, siηan In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of highbush cranberry (Viburnum opulus, GILA) fruit extract on blood glucose levels and kidney tissue homogenates of diabetes-modeled rats by injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Blood glucose levels of rats were measured in tail blood using a glucose meter. Glucose determination was done 48 h after STZ injection. For this, 32 Wistar albino rats were employed. The rats were divided into four groups; control, STZ, STZ + GILA, and GILA with containing eight animals each. After 12 weeks, they were sacrificed. During the study periods, blood glucose levels were measured periodically and kidney tissue parameters were measured in their homogenates after sacrificing the rats. The measured parameters were glutathione, Malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant status. The results obtained from the study were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows software, and P < 0.05 was assigned as statistically significant value. The findings of the study showed that GILA consumption could help diabetic people to prevent possible nephropathy due to its potent antioxidant features.
  1,521 178 -
Familial liability and age of onset among patients with major mental illness
Adetunji Obadeji, Lateef Olutoyin Oluwole, Christopher Goson Piwuna
May-August 2020, 7(2):79-84
DOI:10.4103/JNBS.JNBS_3_20  
Familial liability (FL) or susceptibility has been shown to increase the risk for psychotic disorders, however, little is known about FL among patients with major psychiatric disorders in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the rate of FL and factors influencing the age of onset among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (BDs). This was a cross-sectional survey of patients with either diagnosis of BD or schizophrenia based on ICD-10 criteria. Data were collected through a pretested sociodemographic questionnaire, incorporating age, duration of illness, the onset of illness, and family history (FH) of mental illness. Data were presented as tables, charts, and bivariate analysis was performed to determine the relationship between variables. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Of the 235 participants, 66 (28.1%) had a FH of mental illness. The age of onset ranges from 12 to 70 years with a mean of 30.1 years (standard deviation = 11.1 years) and majority 85 (36.2%) were within the age group 30–39 years and had developed the illness before the age of 30 years (54.5%). The males were twice more likely to developed mental illness before the age of 30 years compared with their female counterparts (odds ratio [OR] = 2.42, [confidence interval (CI) = 1.40–4.25], [P = 0.013]), likewise, the singles compared with the ever-married (OR = 4.24, [CI = 2.45–7.34], [P = 0.000]). Although nearly a third of the participants had a FL to mental illness, there was no association between the age of onset and FH of mental illness. However, the males and the singles were more likely to have developed mental illness at an earlier age compared with their counterparts.
  1,479 119 -
Construction of western aphasia battery in Nepali: A pilot study
Jyoti Shah, Sureshwar Lal Karna, Himanshu Verma
May-August 2020, 7(2):47-51
DOI:10.4103/JNBS.JNBS_6_20  
Aim: The present study aims to construct the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) in Nepali language. Method: Individuals for this study were ten Nepali speaking adults in the age range of 30 and above, out of which five were healthy and five were aphasics. The cortical quotient was not included in the present study as many of our population were illiterate and examining them on the tests of reading and writing was not possible. Result: The current study clearly shows that aphasic patients can be identified and classified into the types of aphasia and also the severity of the language deficits can be obtained in terms of the AQ using Nepali WAB. Conclusion: We can conclude that WAB-N gives detailed information about oral language abilities which further provides the baseline for therapy plan and recovery.
  1,348 204 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Serebral palsi'de uygulanan tedavi yöntemlerinin nöroplastisite etkilerinin İncelendiǧi Çalışmalar; Investigating the neuroplastic effects of treatment methods applied in cerebral palsy
Uz Fzt Arzu Burcu Karakuş
May-August 2020, 7(2):91-99
DOI:10.4103/JNBS.JNBS_10_20  
ÖZ Gelişmekte olan beyindeki lezyonlar sonucu oluşan Serebral Palsi (SP), pediatrik fizyoterapinin ana ilgi alanlarından biri olmuştur. Uygulanan terapi yöntemlerinin günlük hayattaki bedensel ve sosyal sonuçlarını içeren pek çok araştırma ve derleme mevcuttur. Bu derlemede, uygulanan rehabilitasyonun beyinlerdeki karşılıǧı olan nöroplastik etkileri araştıran yayınları incelemek için elektronik veri tabanları PUBMED ve Web of Science içerisinde tarama yapılmıştır. Bu konudaki araştırmalarla ilgili ulaşılan sınırlı sayıdaki yayında, sonuçların hepsi rehabilitasyon sonucu nöroplastisitenin geliştiǧini delillendirir niteliktedir. Bu derlemede, nöroplastisiteyi ölçmek için kullanılan yöntemlere de kısaca deǧinilmiş ve araştırılmaya muhtaç konulardan birine daha ışık tutmak hedeflenmiştir. Anahtar kelimeler: Serebral Palsi, Nöroplastisite, Fizyoterapi, Pediatrik Rehabilitasyon Cerebral Palsy (SP), formed as a result of lesions in the developing brain, has been one of the main areas of interest in pediatric physiotherapy. There are many researches and reviews about the physical and social consequences of the therapy methods used in daily life. In this review, electronic databases were scanned in PUBMED and Web of Science to examine the publications investigating the neuroplastic effects that are the equivalent of the rehabilitation applied in the brain. In a limited number of publications about research on this subject, all of the results are evidence to prove that neuroplasticity developed as a result of rehabilitation. In this review, the methods used to measure neuroplasticity are briefly mentioned and it is aimed to shed more light on one of the subjects in need of investigation.
  1,354 124 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Determination of SLC6A4 promoter L/S polymorphism in professional volleyball players and comparison of the literature; Profesyonel voleybolcularda Slc6a4 promotör L/S polimorfizminin belirlenmesi ve literatür karşilaşti
Selin Yigit, Tolga Polat, Canan Sercan Dogan, Seçil Tunali, Ridvan Ekmekçi, Korkut Ulucan
May-August 2020, 7(2):66-71
DOI:10.4103/JNBS.JNBS_8_20  
Öz Çalışmamızda, voleybolcularda serotonin taşıyıcı protein geni (SLC6A4) promotör L/S polimorfizminin genotip ve allel daǧılımlarını belirlemeyi ve literatürde bulunan önceki çalışmalar ile karşılaştırmayı hedefledik. Bu amaçla çalışmamıza 21 voleybolcu katıldı. Genotipleme işlemi, yanak içi epitel hücrelerinden DNA elde edildikten sonra PCR ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Literatür taraması Google Akademik ve PUBMED veri tabanlarında “spor, sporcu, genetik, SLC6A4, spor genetiǧi, polimorfizm” anahtar kelimeler ve kombinasyonları ile yapılmıştır. Kohortumuzda LL, LS ve SS genotipleri sayı ve yüzde olarak sırasıyla 10 (%48), 7 (%33) ve 4 (%19) olarak bulundu. L ve S allel sayı ve yüzdeleri ise sırasıyla 27 (%64) ve 15 (%36) olarak bulunmuştur. Yapılan literatür araması ile 9 farklı çalışma kriterlerimize uygun bulunmuş ve bulgularımız ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Sonuç olarak, genotip daǧılımı açısından SS genotipinin yüzdece düşük olması, diǧer çalışmalar ve bizim bulgularımız ile ortaktır. Sadece bir çalışmada S alleli yüzdece daha fazla bulunmuştur. Son dönemlerde yapılan çalışmalar “S” allelinin anksiyete ile ilişkilendirildiǧini göstermiştir. Çalışmamız, voleybolculardaki LL genotip ve L allelinin, SS genotip ve S allelinden yüzdece daha yüksek olduǧunu gösteren ilk rapordur. Anahtar Kelimeler: genetik, spor genetiǧi, serotonin, voleybol, polimorfizm We aimed to determine the genotype and allele distributions of the serotonin transporter protein gene (SLC6A4) promoter L/S polymorphism in volleyball players and compare it with the previous studies in the literature in this study. For this purpose, 21 volleyball players participated in our study. Genotyping was performed by PCR after DNAs were isolated from buccal cells. The literature review has been done in Google Scholar and PUBMED databases with the keywords and combinations of “sports, athletes, genetics, SLC6A4, sports genetics, polymorphism”. In our cohort, LL, LS and SS genotypes were found in numbers and percentages as 10 (48%), 7 (33%) and 4 (19%), respectively. The respective L and S allele count numbers and percentages were 27 (64%) and 15 (36%). 9 different studies matched our criteria and compared with our findings with literature review. As a result, the low percentage of SS genotype in terms of genotype distribution was common with the previous studies and our findings. The S allele percentage was higher than our results just in one research. Recent studies have shown that the “S” allele is associated with anxiety. Our study was the first report to show that the LL genotype and L allele in volleyball players are higher than the SS genotype and S allele.
  1,273 148 -
Obsesif kompulsif bozukluǧa sahip hastalar ile saǧlıklı bireyler arasındaki aleksitimi düzey farklılıklarının karşılaştırılması; Comparison of alexithymia level differences associated with obsessive compulsive disorder patients and healthy people
Umay Uslu, Habib Erensoy, Kumru Senyasar Meterelliyoz, Hasan Mervan Aytaç, Tonguç Demir Berkol
May-August 2020, 7(2):52-60
DOI:10.4103/JNBS.JNBS_7_20  
ÖZET Çalışmamızda OKB hastaları ile saǧlıklı bireylerin aleksitimi düzeyleri karşılaştırılıp aralarında anlamlı bir fark olup olmadıǧı incelenmiştir. Bununla birlikte kişilerin bazı sosyodemografik özelliklerinin de OKB ve aleksitimi düzeyleri üzerinde etkili olup olmadıǧı araştırılmıştır. Çalışmaya, İstanbul ilindeki Üsküdar Üniversitesi NP Feneryolu Tıp Merkezi'nde tanı almış ve tedavileri halen devam eden, yaşları 18-45 aralıǧında olan 25'i kadın 15'i erkek olmak üzere 40 gönüllü OKB hastası ile İstanbul ilinde yaşayan rastgele seçilmiş, herhangi bir psikiyatrik tanısı bulunmayan, yaşları 18-45 aralıǧında olan 25'i kadın 15'i erkek olmak üzere 40 gönüllü saǧlıklı birey katılmıştır. Katılımcılar öncelikle çalışma ve kişisel bilgilerin gizliliǧi konusunda bilgilendirilmiştir. Araştırmada elde edilecek verileri toplamak amacıyla, 80 katılımcıya, “Sosyodemografik Veri Formu, Toronto Aleksitimi Ölçeǧi (TAÖ-20) ve Yale-Brown Obsesyon Kompulsiyon Ölçeǧi ve Semptom Listesi (Y-BOCS)” uygulanmıştır. Bu ölçeklerden elde edilen veriler ise SSPS v. 21 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) programı ile istatistiksel analize tabi tutulmuştur. Sürekli deǧişkenlerin normallik daǧılımı Skewness-Kurtosis deǧerlerinin -1.5 ve +1.5 aralıǧında oluşuna göre deǧerlendirilmiştir. OKB tanılı hastalarla saǧlıklı kontrollerin ölçeklerden aldıkları puanların karşılaştırılmasında baǧımsız örneklem t testi yürütülmüştür. Sosyodemografik deǧişkenler bakımından yürütülen gruplar arası karşılaştırmalarda baǧımsız örneklem Mann Whintey U testi yürütülmüştür. Ölçeklerden alınan puanlar arasındaki korelasyon deǧerleri ise puanların normal daǧılıyor olması nedeniyle Pearson korelasyon analizi ile yürütülmüştür. Yapılan çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre; OKB hastalarının aleksitimi düzeyleri saǧlıklı bireylerin aleksitimi düzeylerine göre anlamlı bir biçimde daha yüksek bulunmuştur. OKB hastalarının TAÖ-20'nin alt boyutları olan duygu ifadesinde zorluk puanları ile duygu tanımlamada zorluk puanları arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişki bulunmuştur. Anahtar kelimeler: Aleksitimi, obsesif kompulsif bozukluk, OKB In this study, we compared the levels of alexithymia in healthy individuals with OCD patients and investigated whether there is a significant difference between them. Furthermore, some of the sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects were also examined to determine whether they had an effect on OCD and alexithymia levels. 40 volunteer OCD patients, 25 of whom were women and 15 men, aged 18-45 years, who were diagnosed at the NP Feneryolu Medical Center of Üsküdar University, Istanbul, and who were randomly selected and living in Istanbul, 40 volunteer healthy individuals, 25 of whom are women and 15 of whom are men and whose ages are between 18 and 45, are attended to this study. Participants were first informed about the privacy of work and personal information. “Sociodemographic Data Form, Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Symptom List (Y-BOCS)” were applied to all 80 participants in order to collect the data obtained in the study. The data obtained from these scales were subjected to statistical analysis with the SSPS v. 21 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) program. The normality distribution of continuous variables was evaluated according to the occurrence of Skewness-Kurtosis values in the range of -1.5 and +1.5. An independent sample t-test was conducted to compare the scores of healthy controls and OCD patients. Independent sample Mann Whintey U test was performed among the groups in terms of demographic variables. Correlation values between the scores obtained from the scales were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis because the scores were normally distributed. According to the results of this study; a significant difference was found between the levels of alexithymia of healthy individuals and OCD patients. The levels of alexithymia in OCD patients were significantly higher than those of healthy individuals. Apart from this, there was a significant positive correlation between the difficulty describing feelings scores of OCD patients and the their difficulty identifying feelings scores of the TAS-20 subscales. In addition, a number of suggestions have been added in order to make contribution to the literature of this research which is also included in similar studies.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE/ORIJINAL MAKALE
Panik bozukluǧu hastalarinda ve birinci derece yakinlarinda anksiyete duyarliliǧi ve panik agorafobi spektrumu belirtileri; Anxiety sensitivity and panic-agoraphobic spectrum symptoms in patients with panic disorder and their first degree relatives
Hüseyin Bulut, Berna Ulug
May-August 2020, 7(2):85-90
DOI:10.4103/JNBS.JNBS_12_20  
ÖZ Bu araştırmada panik bozukluǧu tanısı konan hastalarda ve birinci derece yakınlarında anksiyete duyarlılıǧı ölçümlerinin ve panik-agorafobi spektrumu belirtilerinin incelenmesi ve karşılaştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Bir üniversite tıp fakültesi hastanesi psikiyatri polikliniǧinde panik bozukluǧu tanısı konulan veya bu tanı ile izlenmekte olan 80 hasta ile bu hastaların birinci derece yakınları (80 hasta kardeşi) klinik deǧerlendirme sonrası çalışma kapsamına alınmışlardır. Hastalara sosyo-demografik bilgi formu, DSM-IV Eksen I Bozuklukları İçin Yapılandırılmış Klinik Görüşme (SCID-1), Anksiyete Duyarlılık Ölçeǧi (ADÖ), Durumluk-Sürekli Kaygı Ölçeǧi (DSKÖ), Beck Depresyon Ölçeǧi (BDÖ), Panik-Agorafobi Ölçeǧi (PAÖ) ve Yaşamboyu Panik-Agorafobi Spektrumu Ölçeǧi (PASÖ-YB); kardeşlerine ise sosyo-demografik bilgi formu, SCID-1, ADÖ, DSKÖ, BDÖ, PASÖ-YB uygulanmıştır. Yapılan deǧerlendirmeler sonucunda, hastaların ADÖ puanlarının, kardeşlerinin puanlarından, istatistiksel olarak anlamı şekilde yüksek olduǧu saptanmıştır (p < 0.01). Ayrıca hastalar PASÖ-YB ölçeǧinden kardeşlere göre anlamlı derecede yüksek puan almışlardır (p < 0.01). BDÖ puanı kovaryant olarak analize alındıǧında anksiyete duyarlılıǧı ve panik-agorafobi spektrumu belirtilerini gösterme açısından farklılık kaybolmamaktadır. Sonuç olarak panik bozukluǧunda, birinci derece hasta yakınlarında endofenotipik özellikler olarak araştırılmış olan iki deǧişken olan anksiyete duyarlılıǧı ve spektrum belirtilerinin şiddet ve sıklık bakımından hasta grubundan farklı olduǧu saptanmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: panik bozuklugu, anksiyete, panik-agorafobi spektrumu, depresyon The aim of the study was to investigate and compare anxiety sensitivity measurements and panic-agoraphobic spectrum symptoms in patients diagnosed with panic disorder and in their first degree relatives. Eighty patients who were on follow-up or recently diagnosed as panic disorder in a university faculty of medicine psychiatry department and their first degree relatives (80 siblings) were included after clinical evaluation. The patients were assessed with socio-demographic information form, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1), Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Panic-Agoraphobic Scale (PAS) and Lifetime Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum Self Report (PAS-SR lifetime); and their siblings were assessed with socio-demographic information form, SCID-1, ASI, STAI, BDI, and PAS-SR lifetime. According to the results of the study, it was determined that the ASI scores of the patients were statistically significantly higher than the scores of their siblings (p < 0.01). In addition, patients scored significantly higher on the PAS-SR lifetime scale than siblings (p < 0.01). Inclusion of BDI scores in covariant analysis has made no change in the difference among study groups in level of anxiety sensitivity and degree of panic agoraphobic spectrum. As a conclusion, in this study, it was found that anxiety sensitivity and spectrum symptoms, which are two variables investigated as endophenotypic features in the first degree relatives in the panic disorder, differ from the patient group in terms of severity and frequency.
  752 81 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Drug Interactions Between COVID-19 and Psychiatric Medications: A Mini Review
Filiz Izci, Filiz Kulacaoglu
September-December 2020, 7(3):103-108
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_16_20  
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic with 8,708,000 confirmed cases and 461,715 death in the world until June 21, 2020. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 virus, which is an enveloped and single-stranded RNA virus belonging to Coronaviridea family, causes multiple organ systems diseases such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and neurological tracts in humans and animals. With the rapid and global spread of COVID-19, the scientific authorities have developed treatment algorithms for COVID-19. Besides the supportive care, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, tocilizumab, azithromycin, Vitamin C, and convalescent plasma therapy are frequently used off-label to treat COVID-19. For severe COVID-19 cases, the US Food and Drug Administration has issued an Emergency Use Authorization Remdesivir, which is the first drug to earn the title. COVID-19 treatment may cause many side effects and drug interactions. Psychiatric diseases are also chronic diseases, and psychiatric drugs may have severe interactions with COVID-19 medications. Drug interactions with psychiatric medication and neuropsychiatric side effects should be considered within the action mechanism of COVID-19 treatments. Thus, in this review, we aimed to elucidate the interactions of COVID-19 medications with the antidepressants, antipsychotics, and the other psychotropic drugs that have been frequently used in psychiatric diseases. Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, ribavirin, and lopinavir/ritonavir have interactions with psychiatric medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and anxiolytics in terms of QTc interval prolongation, hepatotoxicity, myelosuppression, increased or decreased concentration of medications. Remdesivir has lower interactions with most of the psychiatric drugs except St John's Wort and some anticonvulsants. However, favipiravir is considered as the COVID-19 medication, which has lower interaction and side effects in combination with psychiatric medication. The use of tocilizumab is also safe with most of the psychiatric drugs and has a positive effect on depressive symptoms, although there is a risk of hepatotoxicity.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Development of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale: Validity and Reliability Study
Nesrin Dilbaz, Onur Cemal Noyan, Gul Alpar, Ozlem Kizilkurt Kazan
September-December 2020, 7(3):142-151
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_27_20  
Objective: It is suggested that the psychological and emotional reactions that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to serious psychiatric disorders in the long run. This study aims to establish the validity and reliability of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale developed for measuring emotions and behaviors related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The sociodemographic form, COVID-19 Phobia Scale developed by the researchers, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Health Anxiety Scale were applied in the study conducted through a web-based survey method. Results: An item-total analysis was performed as the first step of the study that was conducted with 1243 participants. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed the final version of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale to comprise four subscales made up of 22 items, where the subscales were termed as worry, mood, reassurance seeking/precaution, and avoidance. The internal consistency of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale measured by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.84. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the COVID-19 Phobia Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Anxiety Scale. Conclusion: The COVID-19 Phobia Scale is a valid and reliable scale that can be used to measure emotions and related behavioral changes.
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Evaluation of the Effects of Lactational Exposure to Hyoscyamine Fraction of Datura stramonium L. Seeds on Learning and Memory in Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)
Idris Tela Abdu, Sunday Abraham Musa, Ibrahim Abdullahi Iliya, James Oliver Nzalak
September-December 2020, 7(3):109-117
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_17_20  
Background: Datura stramonium (D. stramonium), is a family member of Solanaceae, an annual plant known for its medicinal and toxic properties. Aims and Objectives: The study was designed to determine whether lactational exposure to hyoscyamine fraction of Datura stramonium L. (D. stramonium) seeds affect the cognitive, spatial learning and memory functions of the hippocampus in Wistar rats at adulthood. Materials and Methods: Fresh seeds of D. stramonium L. were procured, macerated and fractionated. Eight (8) Wistar rats weighed 150-250 grams of equal gender were used for the study. The rats were mated and divided into control and treatment groups. Equivalent body weight of normal saline and 400 mg/kgbwt of hyoscyamine fraction were orally administered to the breastfeeding rats respectively on lactational days (LD) 1-21. At adulthood, the rats were subjected to neurobehavioural tests using novel objects recognition (NORT) and Morris water maze (MWM) respectively. The data obtained were expressed as mean ± SEM, independent two samples t-test and General Linear Model (GLM) repeated-measures ANOVA with Fisher's multiple comparisons post-hoc tests were used to show the mean differences using Minitab 17 (LLC., U.K.) statistical package software. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A significant increase in the meantime of exploration between the groups (p = 0.049) was observed during the NORT. No statistically significant increase (p = 0.626) in the meantime to locate the escape platform between the groups during the MWM test. The CA1 region of the treated group showed mild nuclear hyperchromasia, cytoplasmic vacuolations and pyknosis. Conclusion: In conclusion, exposure to hyoscyamine fraction of D. stramonium L. seeds at lactation caused neuronal lesions in the CA1 region, impaired novel objects recognition but not spatial learning and memory in Wistar rats at adulthood.
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Determination of the Anxiety – Related SLC6A4 Gene Promoter “S” and “L” Alleles in Football Players
Özlem Özge Yılmaz, Özge Yilmaz, Tolga Polat, Çisem Silar, Ipek Yüksel Gözler, Sezgin Kapici, Canan Sercan Dogan, Basak Funda Eken, Korkut Ulucan
September-December 2020, 7(3):138-141
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_26_20  
Background: The anxiety level of an athlete is important. The serotonin transporter protein is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene. Serotonin is one of the most important members of anxiety metabolism. Serotonin transporter protein plays a role in bringing serotonin back from the synaptic space to the presynaptic neuron. Aims: We aimed to determine the genotype and allele distributions of the SLC6A4 promoter L/S polymorphism in football players and compare it with the control group. For this purpose, 20 football players participated in our study. Materials and Methods: Genotyping was performed by PCR after DNAs were isolated from buccal epithelial cells. Results: When we examined the genotype distributions, the LL, LS and SS were found as 4 (20%), 8 (40%) and 8 (40%), respectively. In the control group, the same genotype number and percentages were determined as 10 (23%), 25 (57%) and 9 (20%), respectively. In terms of genotype distribution, no statistically significant significance was found between the two groups (p = 0.2493). When allelic distributions were examined in the athlete group, the L allele was counted as 16 (40%) and the S allele as 24 (60%). In the control group, the L allele 45 (51%) and the S allele were counted as 43 (49%). When the two groups were compared statistically in terms of allelic distribution, no statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.2423). Conclusion: As a result, LS and SS genotype were co-dominant and at the same time higher than LL genotype. At the same time, when we compared the S allele with the L allele, it was found that the S allele was more in percentage. Studies have found that the S allele is associated with anxiety. Sports psychologist can support athletes with S allele who are prone to anxiety problems. This is the first study to report that S allele is more common than L allele in Turkish football players.
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Computational Modeling of Trans-Zeatin as a Novel Target of Adenosine A2A Receptor: Insights into Molecular Interactions
Ebru Destan, Pınar Öz2, Ahmet Can Timuçin
September-December 2020, 7(3):118-129
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_19_20  
Background: Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is involved in various physiological functions. Zeatin, a plant cytokinin and a derivative of adenine, is recently identified as new ligand of A2AR. However, the ligand-receptor interaction mechanism is not fully revealed. Aims and Objectives: The main aim of this study is to reveal a model structure of A2AR in complex with zeatin for the first time to provide a better understanding of this novel interaction mechanism. Materials and Methods: The model structure of A2AR in complex with zeatin was created by docking and the structural dynamics of the complex were detected by molecular dynamic simulations during the study. A model structure of A2AR in complex with caffeine was used as a positive control. Result: Zeatin displayed the ability to stay more stable at the binding pocket compared with caffeine based on molecular dynamic simulations and the residues involved in the interaction are identified, leading a new sight for further studies on zeatin and A2AR interaction. Conclusion: We propose that zeatin is indeed a novel and promising target for A2AR.
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The Relationship between the Visual-Spatial Perceptions and Face Recognition Skills in Parents of the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Emel Sari Gokten, Burcu Uckun, Ersin Budak, Ali Evren Tufan
September-December 2020, 7(3):130-137
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_25_20  
The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between the autism symptoms of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the visual-spatial perceptions and face recognition skills of the parents of these children. In the study, the parents of 30 children (30 mothers, 30 fathers) diagnosed with intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) and the parents of 30 children (30 mothers, 30 fathers) without any psychiatric disorder, totally 180 people, were assessed in order to compare the data of the parents of 30 children (30 mothers, 30 fathers) diagnosed with ASD. Autism behavior checklist was used to assess the symptoms of the children diagnosed with ASD. Benton's Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLO), Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT), and symptom checklist were used to assess the parents in three groups. It was found that there was no correlation between the autism symptoms of the children diagnosed with ASD and the visual-spatial perceptions and face recognition skills of their parents. The spatial perception skills of the fathers in the ASD group were higher compared to the mothers in this group (P < 0.001), it was found that the 14.4% (P = 0.022) of the BFRT scores of the fathers in the ASD and 11.8% (P = 0.035) of the BFRT scores of the fathers in the IDD group were explained by the BJLO scores. It may be useful to focus on the gender, face recognition skill and the visual-spatial perception performance when researching the genetical aspects of the face processing disorder seen as consistent information in the ASD phenotype.
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Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Depression and Anxiety: A Pilot Study
Habib Erensoy
September-December 2020, 7(3):164-169
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_32_20  
Background: The association between nutrition and mental diseases has been extensively studied. Vitamin B12 and folic acid are the main vitamins in the development of the central nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin B12 and folic acid levels with depression and anxiety. Methods: A total of 150 patients (77 with anxiety and 73 with depression) between 18 and 79 were enrolled. The initial mood state was evaluated using Beck's Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) for the presence of depression and anxiety, respectively. Venous blood samples were collected after overnight fasting and vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured. Results: Serum concentrations of folic acid were significantly lower in patients with depression than those with anxiety (p=0.04). Substantially higher vitamin B12 levels were described in men than females counterparts with severe depression (p=0.049). Additionally, there was a significant inverse correlation between folic acid levels and Beck's inventory score among patients with severe depression (r=-0.250, p=0.049). Conclusion: Serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid could be used as markers that assess anxiety and depression's therapeutic efficiency.
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The Distribution of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor rs6265 Polymorphism in Turkish Volleyball Players
Tolga Polat, Canan Sercan Dogan, Basak Funda Eken, Özlem Özge Yilmaz, Çisem Silar, Gözdem Karapinar, Begümsu Baltacıoğlu, Rıdvan Ekmekçi, Korkut Ulucan
September-December 2020, 7(3):152-155
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_28_20  
Athletic performance is associated with many environmental factors such as inborn genetic factors, nutrition, psychological factors, and education. We aimed to analyze the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs6265 polymorphism, which is an important genetic marker related to psychological factors, in 21 professional female volleyball players and compare it with the control group. Genotyping was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. BDNF rs6265 polymorphism genotypes were calculated as 72% and 28% for GG and GA in volleyball players, respectively. No AA genotype was detected. In the control group, the GG, GA, and AA genotype percentages were calculated as 57.8, 36.3, and 5.9, respectively. In the allelic distribution, the percentages in the athlete group were calculated as 86% (36) for the G allele and 14% (6) for the A allele, respectively. In the control group, for the G and A alleles, respectively, it was 76.25% and 23.75%. No statistical significance was found in terms of both genotype distribution (P = 0.407) and allelic frequency distribution (P = 0.218). Our results were in line with data indicating the stress and anxiety-related nature of professional volleyball players. More studies with more athletes and more groups of athletes are needed to understand the effect of these parameters on volleyball players.
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Distribution of Dopamine Receptor 2 (DRD2) rs1800497 Polymorphisms In Cyclist
Çisem Silar, Esra Karagöz, Tolga Polat, Özlem Özge Yilmaz, Beste Tacal Aslan, Canan Sercan Doğan, Begüm Su Baltacioğlu, Tuğba Kaman, Korkut Ulucan
September-December 2020, 7(3):170-173
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_34_20  
Genetic and environmental factors are important determinants of the athletic performance. Sports genetic determines certain alleles for the identification of the genes that affect athletic performance. Comprehensive researches including the biology of mental properties are accumulating due to the improvement of the information of molecular biology. Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter of the dopaminergic system that affects the athlete mentally and psychologically. In this study, our goal is to determine the genotype and allele distributions of the DRD2 rs180047 polymorphism in the cyclists. Nineteen cyclists and 52 sedentary individuals (controls) participated in our study. Genotyping was carried out by real-time polymerase chain reaction after DNA was isolated from buccal epithelial cells. In our cohort, AG and GG genotypes were detected as 6 (32%) and 13 (68%), respectively. In the control group, the respective AA, AG, and GG genotypes were detected as 9 (17%), 18 (35%), and 25 (48%). No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of genotype distribution between the two groups (P=0.1107). When allelic distributions were examined, in the athlete cohort, A and G allele numbers were counted as 6 (16%) and 32 (84%), respectively. In the control group, the same alleles were counted as 36 (35%) and 68 (65%). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of alleles in our study cohort (P = 0.0295). In our cohort, GG genotype and the G allele of the DRD2 rs1800497 polymorphism were dominant. Recent studies showed the association of the A allele with addiction. Therefore, we hypothesized the association of the related allele and success in cyclists. Although we were unable to find a statistically significant difference, we suggest to analyze the same polymorphism in athletes with different sports branches to fulfill the role of the given polymorphism.
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The Development of a Fuzzy Logic Model-Based Suicide Risk Assessment Tool
Fatma Ayhan, Besti Üstün, Türker Tekin Ergüze
September-December 2020, 7(3):156-163
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_30_20  
Aim: The purpose of the research was to develop a fuzzy logic model-based risk assessment tool and to determine the views of health professionals working in community mental health centers concerning this. Introduction: Retrospective and psychologic autopsy researches have shown that a detectable psychological disease is available in at least 90% of all completed suicides. A methodological method was employed in developing the fuzzy logic model-based risk assessment tool, and the qualitative research method was used to elicit attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: In the first stage, the suicide risk assessment tool was developed. In the second stage, the health professionals used the suicide risk assessment tool for 4 weeks. Feedback regarding health professionals' opinions of the suicide risk assessment tool was then elicited handling a semi-structured reportage form, and data were investigated handling descriptive analysis. Statistical Analysis: Health professionals reported powerful aspects making the suicide risk assessment tool a functional, practical, comprehensive, and highly applicable guideline. Results: Participants also recommended the addition to the results screen of a chart showing the course of the suicide risk assessment and that the reliability and validity of the tool be confirmed. Conclusion: In conclusion, health professionals expressed positive opinions regarding the scope of the suicide risk assessment tool and its measurement of that risk. Following confirmation of its reliability and validity, it may be useful for the fuzzy logic-based suicide risk assessment form to be integrated into and applied in the community health centers system.
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LETTER TO EDITOR
A novel treatment option for autism spectrum disorder: Vasopressin receptor antagonists
Sidar Çöpür, Mazlum Çöpür
May-August 2020, 7(2):100-101
DOI:10.4103/JNBS.JNBS_4_20  
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