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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-April 2021
Volume 8 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-80

Online since Monday, March 29, 2021

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Animal models of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: A critical overview and suggestions p. 1
Rumeysa Rabia Kocaturk, Oznur Ozge Ozcan, Mesut Karahan
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_7_21  
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorder that appears as a subset of attention deficit and different subspecies in which both occur together and is generally observed in childhood. Pharmacological agents such as atomoxetine and methylphenidate, which are widely used against the disease, appear with different and important side effects. Since the causes of the disease are not clearly understood, many studies are carried out on various animal models in order to both understand the etiology and develop new treatment models. In this review, a holistic approach to ADHD will be presented and advances in animal models, neuroimaging, neurodevelopmental, and neurochemical conditions will be presented using different perspectives. It is very important to understand how different animal models are effective in the development of pharmacological agents. In addition, comparing ADHD with different types of disease can detect similarities and further strengthen the etiological basis. Our major proposal is to draw attention to the further development of animal models related to the importance of the thalamus, which officially sees a filter of perception. Different animal models are needed to do all this because the disease is not fully modeled, except for the symptoms of ADHD. The current review will conclude that none of the currently discussed models meet all the necessary validation criteria, but that newly created genetic models, therapeutic strategies, and the disease mechanism may be radically important points.
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Update on promising biomarkers for multiple sclerosis p. 17
Faizan Ahmad, Upasana Pathak, Abhichandan Das, Anusri Dhar
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_40_20  
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease, in which there is chronic inflammation leading to neurodegeneration and demyelination. To detect MS at an early stage is impossible as it includes environmental factors and genetic factors as it varies from person to person. There are various methodologies that have been developed for the treatment of this disease; however, several complications as well as obstacles have been seen which are yet to be resolved. This review describes the biomarker for MS including microRNA and vaccine as a biomarker. Some of the drugs which are under phase II clinical trials are also discussed here. Testing and continuous validation is required for improvement where MS biomarkers are brought into clinical settings.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

The effect of memorizing the quran on cognitive functions p. 22
Sumeyye Sirin, Baris Metin, Nevzat Tarhan
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_42_20  
Background: Memorizing the Quran is an education continuing from the early periods of Islamic education until today. Although this education started in the past to protect the Quran, nowadays, it is continuing as a tradition. Aims and Objectives: The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of memorizing the Quran on certain cognitive functions of individuals. Materials and Methods: The scope of the study is limited to 18 female and 15 male students who have been studying in the 5th, 6th, and 7th grades of Anatolian Imam Preacher Secondary Schools in different districts of İstanbul. After Demographic Information Questionnaire was used, California Verbal Learning Test children's version, Wechsler Memory Scale revised visual reproduction subtest, Trail Making Test, and Verbal Fluency Test were applied twice to collect data about individuals before and after memorization training. Results: Findings demonstrated that there is a statistically significant difference in verbal learning, visual learning, attention speed, and phonemic and semantic fluency before and after memorization training. Conclusion: In conclusion, memorizing the Quran has positive impacts on verbal and visual memory, attention processes, and lexical and semantic fluency of individuals. It is important with regard to eliminate emptiness in the literature. In future studies, it can be investigated the effects of textual memorization in a foreign language on brain structures and connections.
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Comparison and examination of the death anxiety of parents with and without having mental retarded children p. 28
Zeynep Gümüs Demir, Kahraman Güler, Emel Aner Aktan, Deniz Sevimli
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_46_20  
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to have children with and without mental retardation (MR) (diagnosed with MR), it is to compare and examine parents' death anxiety. Materials and Methods: The research is based on the screening model. The sample group of the study consists of 120 people in total, consisting of parents (n = 60) of children who are followed up in a private counseling and research center due to the presence of intellectual disability, and parents with typically developed children (n = 60) as the comparison group. Sociodemographic information of the participants, who could be included in the study on a voluntary basis, was filled in by the researcher using face to face interview method using the Sociodemographic Information Form, and their death anxiety levels were evaluated with the Multidimensional Evaluation Inventory for Death and Dying. In comparing the quantitative data of the study, the t test, which is the two independent variable tests, was used to analyze the difference between the two parametric groups. The relationship between the scales was tested with Pearson Correlation analysis. Multiple linear regression was used to see the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable. Results: As a result of the research findings, it was found that there are statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) between the scores of the compared groups. Death anxiety of parents with mentally retarded children was found to be higher than parents of typically developed children. Conclusion: This research is important in terms of providing the opportunity for cross cultural comparison and contributing to the policies to be developed on the subject..
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The relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and religious attitudes p. 36
Tayfun Cinar, Oguz Tan, Remziye Keskin, Gokben Hizli Sayar
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_39_20  
Objective: This study aimed to examine the relationship between obsessive compulsive symptoms and religious attitudes. Method: A total of 80 people, 40 females and 40 males, randomly selected between the ages of 18 and 65 participated in the study. Participants were given Sociodemographic Information Form, the Padua Inventory, and Ok Religious Attitude Scale. Results: Based on the findings, there was no statistically significant relationship between obsessive compulsive symptoms subscales and religious attitudes. According to results related to sociodemographic variables, no statistically significant difference was found between sociodemographic variables of the participants and obsessive compulsive symptoms. No statistically significant difference was found between the religious attitudes of the participants and their sociodemographic variables. Conclusion: Because the number of study for understanding these variable is limited in Turkey, It can be considered that the findings of the study related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and religious attitudes is contributive in terms of providing further information for future research.
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Investigation of obsessions and compulsions in terms of psychological resilience in the epidemic period p. 42
Zeynep Atalay, Merve Cebi, Zeynep Gümüs Demir
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_11_21  
Aims and Objectives: In this study, obsessions and compulsions observed during the epidemic period were investigated in terms of psychological resilience. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted on a voluntary basis with 208 people (51.4% women, 48.6% men) who were exposed to the COVID 19 epidemic. Participants were given a Sociodemographic Information Form including questions about COVID 19, Vancouver Obsession–Compulsion Inventory (VOCI), and Adult Psychological Resilience Scale. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package Program for Social Science 21.0 program. Results: When the findings were examined, no difference was found between obsession–compulsion and psychological resilience in terms of total score. However, there are relationships in subdimensions. Contamination subscore of VOCI and social resources subscore of Resilience Scale for Adults were found to be higher than the others. Hoarding was higher in men, while self perception, structural style, and family cohesion were higher in women. Single participants had higher obsession–compulsion scores, whereas married participants had higher self perception and family adjustment. It was concluded that as individuals' age increased, their self perception and social competence increased. Relationships were also found in terms of both obsession–compulsion and psychological resilience with variables, such as the frequency of COVID 19 news and case follow up, the frequency of body screening for COVID 19 symptoms, the change in the frequency of cleaning, and the idea of getting psychological support. Conclusion: This research is significant when it comes to seeing the effect of a compulsive life event, such as an epidemic disease on obsessive and compulsive behaviors.
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Examining the relationship between the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual myths among university students in Turkey p. 54
Cuneyt Balkanoglu, Habib Erensoy, Suleyman Donmezler, Tonguc Demir Berkol
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_38_20  
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of knowledge among university students on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and to compare the level of knowledge of this sample on STDs and their sexual myths. Methods: The sociodemographic data of 200 university students studying at several universities in Turkey randomly selected between January and March 2019 were evaluated with the “Sociodemographic Questionnaire,” their knowledge of STDs with the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Knowledge Questionnaire (STDKQ), and their beliefs in sexual myths with the Sexual Myths Scale (SMS). Results: There was no difference between the STDKQ and the SMS in terms of demographic variables. However, differentiation was seen between the “sexual behavior,” which is one of the subscales of sexual myths, and STDs. The STDKQ scores revealed that individuals who were previously informed received higher scores than those who did not. The level of knowledge about STDs was higher in men than in women. Conclusion: The knowledge of STDs among university students and their beliefs in sexual myths were evaluated based on sociodemographic variables. According to the results, we obtained from our research to increase the level of knowledge about STDs, and for the healthy development of sexual behavior, formal education including sexual health issues should be provided, research should be done for each region in Turkey on this subject, and in line with the results, necessary information should be provided regarding sexual health.
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Evaluating of solute carrier family 6 member 4 gene (SLC6A4) promoter polymorphisms with escitalopram plasma levels for precision medicine in major depressive disorder p. 62
Fadime Canbolat, Dilek Meltem Tasdemir Erinc, Canan Sercan, Alper Evrensel, Korkut Ulucan, Ahmet Aydın, Kasif Nevzat Tarhan
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_44_20  
Aim and Objective: Escitalopram (SCT) shows an antidepressant effect due to its mechanism of increasing the serotonin level by inhibiting the serotonin transporter protein (5HTT). 5HTT is encoded by solute carrier family 6 member 4 gene (SLC6A4) in the brain. Recognition of SCT plasma level of patients and pharmacodynamics of individuals during SCT treatment will increase the expected response to the treatment and reduce the adverse effects. This study aims to determine the effect of SLC6A4 promoter long/short polymorphism and the SCT plasma level of patients on the response to treatment during the SCT drug therapy. Materials and Methods: Blood and plasma samples of 30 major depressive patients using 20 mg SCT for 8 weeks between the ages of 18 and 65 were analyzed to determine SCT plasma level and SLC6A4 promoter polymorphism. The treatment response level was determined by using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at patient files. Results: SCT plasma level of the nine patients with LL polymorphism was found to be in the range of 13.40–63.36 ng/mL. For 13 patients with LS polymorphism, SCT plasma level was found to be in the range of 2.93–57.48 ng/mL. For eight patients with SS polymorphism, the SCT plasma level was found to be in the range of 0.95–49.32 ng/mL. Conclusion: When the association between SCT plasma level and response to the drug treatment was examined, we had significant results to show that SCT level affected the response to treatment, especially in the LS group, as well as the SLC6A4 promoter variation. This study may lead to a more profound understanding of rational drug therapy as well as to a careful application of pharmacogenetics in psychiatry..
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Comparison of job satisfaction, work–life quality, and compassion level between psychologists and psychological counselors p. 70
Dilara Tahincioglu, Suleyman Donmezler, Habib Erensoy, Tonguc Demir Berkol
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_43_20  
Introduction: Various studies have been conducted in the literature on job satisfaction, work-related quality of life, and compassion with different sample groups. Our aim is to compare psychologists and psychological counselors (PC) in terms of these variables. Methods: It consists of 60 participants; 41 women and 19 men, 30 psychologists and 30 PC, aged between 23 and 52 years, working in schools, clinics, hospitals, and other institutions. Participants filled out a sociodemographic information form and were subjected to the Minnesota job satisfaction scale, the work-related quality of life scale, and the compassion scale. Ethical Aspect of the Study: This study was approved by the T.R. University of Üsküdar, Non-Interventional Studies Ethics Committee. Results: It was determined that as the age of psychologists and PC increases, their level of disconnection decreases in terms of compassion (r = −0.264; P = 0.041); thus, their ability to create a rapport increases with age, their compassion fatigue decreases as the workplace changes (r = −0.256; P = 0.048), their job satisfaction decreases as the noise level in the workplace increases (r = −0.433; P = 0.001), their job satisfaction increases as the work-related quality of life increases (r = 0.373; P = 0.003), their humaneness increases as their professional satisfaction increases, and their level of indifference and conscious awareness decreases as their compassion fatigue increases. Conclusion: Compassion fatigue is considered to be more related to the traumatic burden of the work done, because as the frequency of workplace changes increases, compassion fatigue decreases. The findings indicate that psychologists and PCs not only need to have suitable working areas available for their work but also need to change their work fields from time to time. It can be argued that the job satisfaction and work-related quality of life of psychologists and PCs working in private clinics are higher than those working in schools; moreover, the reason for the lower levels of burnouts may be due to the noise levels, as well as the workload at the workplace, other occupational groups, and the culture of the institution.
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CASE REPORT Top

A case with sexual dysfunction improved by vortioxetine dose reduction and sensate focus exercises p. 78
Süleyman Dönmezler, Meltem Sen, Münevver Hacioglu Yildirim
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_37_20  
Major depression disorder in its nature and antidepressants as side effects may cause people to have sexual dysfunction. In the literature, it has been shown in a few examples that it may be beneficial for sexual dysfunction to switch drugs from a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor to vortioxetine. Vortioxetine is an antagonist for 5-HT3 and 5-HT7, a partial agonist for HT1B and agonist for 5-HT1A and has been known for its low level of sexual dysfunctionality. There is a case showing that vortioxetine with high doses might cause sexual impairment and dose reduction might be a treatment option for this side effect. In this case, vortioxetine dose reduction and sexual improvement were simultaneous. Although the sensory exercises might also help the treatment of sexual dysfunction, it should not be ignored that vortioxetine may cause dose-dependent sexual side effects.
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