• Users Online: 109
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
September-December 2020
Volume 7 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 103-173

Online since Friday, December 25, 2020

Accessed 3,461 times.
View as eBookView issue as eBook
Access StatisticsIssue statistics
RSS FeedRSS
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to  Add to my list
REVIEW ARTICLES  

Drug Interactions Between COVID-19 and Psychiatric Medications: A Mini Review p. 103
Filiz Izci, Filiz Kulacaoglu
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_16_20  
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic with 8,708,000 confirmed cases and 461,715 death in the world until June 21, 2020. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 virus, which is an enveloped and single-stranded RNA virus belonging to Coronaviridea family, causes multiple organ systems diseases such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and neurological tracts in humans and animals. With the rapid and global spread of COVID-19, the scientific authorities have developed treatment algorithms for COVID-19. Besides the supportive care, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, tocilizumab, azithromycin, Vitamin C, and convalescent plasma therapy are frequently used off-label to treat COVID-19. For severe COVID-19 cases, the US Food and Drug Administration has issued an Emergency Use Authorization Remdesivir, which is the first drug to earn the title. COVID-19 treatment may cause many side effects and drug interactions. Psychiatric diseases are also chronic diseases, and psychiatric drugs may have severe interactions with COVID-19 medications. Drug interactions with psychiatric medication and neuropsychiatric side effects should be considered within the action mechanism of COVID-19 treatments. Thus, in this review, we aimed to elucidate the interactions of COVID-19 medications with the antidepressants, antipsychotics, and the other psychotropic drugs that have been frequently used in psychiatric diseases. Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, ribavirin, and lopinavir/ritonavir have interactions with psychiatric medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and anxiolytics in terms of QTc interval prolongation, hepatotoxicity, myelosuppression, increased or decreased concentration of medications. Remdesivir has lower interactions with most of the psychiatric drugs except St John's Wort and some anticonvulsants. However, favipiravir is considered as the COVID-19 medication, which has lower interaction and side effects in combination with psychiatric medication. The use of tocilizumab is also safe with most of the psychiatric drugs and has a positive effect on depressive symptoms, although there is a risk of hepatotoxicity.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Evaluation of the Effects of Lactational Exposure to Hyoscyamine Fraction of Datura stramonium L. Seeds on Learning and Memory in Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus) p. 109
Idris Tela Abdu, Sunday Abraham Musa, Ibrahim Abdullahi Iliya, James Oliver Nzalak
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_17_20  
Background: Datura stramonium (D. stramonium), is a family member of Solanaceae, an annual plant known for its medicinal and toxic properties. Aims and Objectives: The study was designed to determine whether lactational exposure to hyoscyamine fraction of Datura stramonium L. (D. stramonium) seeds affect the cognitive, spatial learning and memory functions of the hippocampus in Wistar rats at adulthood. Materials and Methods: Fresh seeds of D. stramonium L. were procured, macerated and fractionated. Eight (8) Wistar rats weighed 150-250 grams of equal gender were used for the study. The rats were mated and divided into control and treatment groups. Equivalent body weight of normal saline and 400 mg/kgbwt of hyoscyamine fraction were orally administered to the breastfeeding rats respectively on lactational days (LD) 1-21. At adulthood, the rats were subjected to neurobehavioural tests using novel objects recognition (NORT) and Morris water maze (MWM) respectively. The data obtained were expressed as mean ± SEM, independent two samples t-test and General Linear Model (GLM) repeated-measures ANOVA with Fisher's multiple comparisons post-hoc tests were used to show the mean differences using Minitab 17 (LLC., U.K.) statistical package software. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A significant increase in the meantime of exploration between the groups (p = 0.049) was observed during the NORT. No statistically significant increase (p = 0.626) in the meantime to locate the escape platform between the groups during the MWM test. The CA1 region of the treated group showed mild nuclear hyperchromasia, cytoplasmic vacuolations and pyknosis. Conclusion: In conclusion, exposure to hyoscyamine fraction of D. stramonium L. seeds at lactation caused neuronal lesions in the CA1 region, impaired novel objects recognition but not spatial learning and memory in Wistar rats at adulthood.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Computational Modeling of Trans-Zeatin as a Novel Target of Adenosine A2A Receptor: Insights into Molecular Interactions p. 118
Ebru Destan, Pınar Öz2, Ahmet Can Timuçin
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_19_20  
Background: Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is involved in various physiological functions. Zeatin, a plant cytokinin and a derivative of adenine, is recently identified as new ligand of A2AR. However, the ligand-receptor interaction mechanism is not fully revealed. Aims and Objectives: The main aim of this study is to reveal a model structure of A2AR in complex with zeatin for the first time to provide a better understanding of this novel interaction mechanism. Materials and Methods: The model structure of A2AR in complex with zeatin was created by docking and the structural dynamics of the complex were detected by molecular dynamic simulations during the study. A model structure of A2AR in complex with caffeine was used as a positive control. Result: Zeatin displayed the ability to stay more stable at the binding pocket compared with caffeine based on molecular dynamic simulations and the residues involved in the interaction are identified, leading a new sight for further studies on zeatin and A2AR interaction. Conclusion: We propose that zeatin is indeed a novel and promising target for A2AR.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

The Relationship between the Visual-Spatial Perceptions and Face Recognition Skills in Parents of the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder p. 130
Emel Sari Gokten, Burcu Uckun, Ersin Budak, Ali Evren Tufan
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_25_20  
The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between the autism symptoms of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the visual-spatial perceptions and face recognition skills of the parents of these children. In the study, the parents of 30 children (30 mothers, 30 fathers) diagnosed with intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) and the parents of 30 children (30 mothers, 30 fathers) without any psychiatric disorder, totally 180 people, were assessed in order to compare the data of the parents of 30 children (30 mothers, 30 fathers) diagnosed with ASD. Autism behavior checklist was used to assess the symptoms of the children diagnosed with ASD. Benton's Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLO), Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT), and symptom checklist were used to assess the parents in three groups. It was found that there was no correlation between the autism symptoms of the children diagnosed with ASD and the visual-spatial perceptions and face recognition skills of their parents. The spatial perception skills of the fathers in the ASD group were higher compared to the mothers in this group (P < 0.001), it was found that the 14.4% (P = 0.022) of the BFRT scores of the fathers in the ASD and 11.8% (P = 0.035) of the BFRT scores of the fathers in the IDD group were explained by the BJLO scores. It may be useful to focus on the gender, face recognition skill and the visual-spatial perception performance when researching the genetical aspects of the face processing disorder seen as consistent information in the ASD phenotype.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Determination of the Anxiety – Related SLC6A4 Gene Promoter “S” and “L” Alleles in Football Players p. 138
Özlem Özge Yılmaz, Özge Yilmaz, Tolga Polat, Çisem Silar, Ipek Yüksel Gözler, Sezgin Kapici, Canan Sercan Dogan, Basak Funda Eken, Korkut Ulucan
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_26_20  
Background: The anxiety level of an athlete is important. The serotonin transporter protein is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene. Serotonin is one of the most important members of anxiety metabolism. Serotonin transporter protein plays a role in bringing serotonin back from the synaptic space to the presynaptic neuron. Aims: We aimed to determine the genotype and allele distributions of the SLC6A4 promoter L/S polymorphism in football players and compare it with the control group. For this purpose, 20 football players participated in our study. Materials and Methods: Genotyping was performed by PCR after DNAs were isolated from buccal epithelial cells. Results: When we examined the genotype distributions, the LL, LS and SS were found as 4 (20%), 8 (40%) and 8 (40%), respectively. In the control group, the same genotype number and percentages were determined as 10 (23%), 25 (57%) and 9 (20%), respectively. In terms of genotype distribution, no statistically significant significance was found between the two groups (p = 0.2493). When allelic distributions were examined in the athlete group, the L allele was counted as 16 (40%) and the S allele as 24 (60%). In the control group, the L allele 45 (51%) and the S allele were counted as 43 (49%). When the two groups were compared statistically in terms of allelic distribution, no statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.2423). Conclusion: As a result, LS and SS genotype were co-dominant and at the same time higher than LL genotype. At the same time, when we compared the S allele with the L allele, it was found that the S allele was more in percentage. Studies have found that the S allele is associated with anxiety. Sports psychologist can support athletes with S allele who are prone to anxiety problems. This is the first study to report that S allele is more common than L allele in Turkish football players.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Development of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale: Validity and Reliability Study p. 142
Nesrin Dilbaz, Onur Cemal Noyan, Gul Alpar, Ozlem Kizilkurt Kazan
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_27_20  
Objective: It is suggested that the psychological and emotional reactions that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to serious psychiatric disorders in the long run. This study aims to establish the validity and reliability of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale developed for measuring emotions and behaviors related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The sociodemographic form, COVID-19 Phobia Scale developed by the researchers, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Health Anxiety Scale were applied in the study conducted through a web-based survey method. Results: An item-total analysis was performed as the first step of the study that was conducted with 1243 participants. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed the final version of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale to comprise four subscales made up of 22 items, where the subscales were termed as worry, mood, reassurance seeking/precaution, and avoidance. The internal consistency of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale measured by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.84. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the COVID-19 Phobia Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Anxiety Scale. Conclusion: The COVID-19 Phobia Scale is a valid and reliable scale that can be used to measure emotions and related behavioral changes.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

The Distribution of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor rs6265 Polymorphism in Turkish Volleyball Players p. 152
Tolga Polat, Canan Sercan Dogan, Basak Funda Eken, Özlem Özge Yilmaz, Çisem Silar, Gözdem Karapinar, Begümsu Baltacıoğlu, Rıdvan Ekmekçi, Korkut Ulucan
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_28_20  
Athletic performance is associated with many environmental factors such as inborn genetic factors, nutrition, psychological factors, and education. We aimed to analyze the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs6265 polymorphism, which is an important genetic marker related to psychological factors, in 21 professional female volleyball players and compare it with the control group. Genotyping was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. BDNF rs6265 polymorphism genotypes were calculated as 72% and 28% for GG and GA in volleyball players, respectively. No AA genotype was detected. In the control group, the GG, GA, and AA genotype percentages were calculated as 57.8, 36.3, and 5.9, respectively. In the allelic distribution, the percentages in the athlete group were calculated as 86% (36) for the G allele and 14% (6) for the A allele, respectively. In the control group, for the G and A alleles, respectively, it was 76.25% and 23.75%. No statistical significance was found in terms of both genotype distribution (P = 0.407) and allelic frequency distribution (P = 0.218). Our results were in line with data indicating the stress and anxiety-related nature of professional volleyball players. More studies with more athletes and more groups of athletes are needed to understand the effect of these parameters on volleyball players.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

The Development of a Fuzzy Logic Model-Based Suicide Risk Assessment Tool p. 156
Fatma Ayhan, Besti Üstün, Türker Tekin Ergüze
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_30_20  
Aim: The purpose of the research was to develop a fuzzy logic model-based risk assessment tool and to determine the views of health professionals working in community mental health centers concerning this. Introduction: Retrospective and psychologic autopsy researches have shown that a detectable psychological disease is available in at least 90% of all completed suicides. A methodological method was employed in developing the fuzzy logic model-based risk assessment tool, and the qualitative research method was used to elicit attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: In the first stage, the suicide risk assessment tool was developed. In the second stage, the health professionals used the suicide risk assessment tool for 4 weeks. Feedback regarding health professionals' opinions of the suicide risk assessment tool was then elicited handling a semi-structured reportage form, and data were investigated handling descriptive analysis. Statistical Analysis: Health professionals reported powerful aspects making the suicide risk assessment tool a functional, practical, comprehensive, and highly applicable guideline. Results: Participants also recommended the addition to the results screen of a chart showing the course of the suicide risk assessment and that the reliability and validity of the tool be confirmed. Conclusion: In conclusion, health professionals expressed positive opinions regarding the scope of the suicide risk assessment tool and its measurement of that risk. Following confirmation of its reliability and validity, it may be useful for the fuzzy logic-based suicide risk assessment form to be integrated into and applied in the community health centers system.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Depression and Anxiety: A Pilot Study p. 164
Habib Erensoy
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_32_20  
Background: The association between nutrition and mental diseases has been extensively studied. Vitamin B12 and folic acid are the main vitamins in the development of the central nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin B12 and folic acid levels with depression and anxiety. Methods: A total of 150 patients (77 with anxiety and 73 with depression) between 18 and 79 were enrolled. The initial mood state was evaluated using Beck's Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) for the presence of depression and anxiety, respectively. Venous blood samples were collected after overnight fasting and vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured. Results: Serum concentrations of folic acid were significantly lower in patients with depression than those with anxiety (p=0.04). Substantially higher vitamin B12 levels were described in men than females counterparts with severe depression (p=0.049). Additionally, there was a significant inverse correlation between folic acid levels and Beck's inventory score among patients with severe depression (r=-0.250, p=0.049). Conclusion: Serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid could be used as markers that assess anxiety and depression's therapeutic efficiency.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Distribution of Dopamine Receptor 2 (DRD2) rs1800497 Polymorphisms In Cyclist p. 170
Çisem Silar, Esra Karagöz, Tolga Polat, Özlem Özge Yilmaz, Beste Tacal Aslan, Canan Sercan Doğan, Begüm Su Baltacioğlu, Tuğba Kaman, Korkut Ulucan
DOI:10.4103/jnbs.jnbs_34_20  
Genetic and environmental factors are important determinants of the athletic performance. Sports genetic determines certain alleles for the identification of the genes that affect athletic performance. Comprehensive researches including the biology of mental properties are accumulating due to the improvement of the information of molecular biology. Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter of the dopaminergic system that affects the athlete mentally and psychologically. In this study, our goal is to determine the genotype and allele distributions of the DRD2 rs180047 polymorphism in the cyclists. Nineteen cyclists and 52 sedentary individuals (controls) participated in our study. Genotyping was carried out by real-time polymerase chain reaction after DNA was isolated from buccal epithelial cells. In our cohort, AG and GG genotypes were detected as 6 (32%) and 13 (68%), respectively. In the control group, the respective AA, AG, and GG genotypes were detected as 9 (17%), 18 (35%), and 25 (48%). No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of genotype distribution between the two groups (P=0.1107). When allelic distributions were examined, in the athlete cohort, A and G allele numbers were counted as 6 (16%) and 32 (84%), respectively. In the control group, the same alleles were counted as 36 (35%) and 68 (65%). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of alleles in our study cohort (P = 0.0295). In our cohort, GG genotype and the G allele of the DRD2 rs1800497 polymorphism were dominant. Recent studies showed the association of the A allele with addiction. Therefore, we hypothesized the association of the related allele and success in cyclists. Although we were unable to find a statistically significant difference, we suggest to analyze the same polymorphism in athletes with different sports branches to fulfill the role of the given polymorphism.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta